Sunday, 24 April 2016

Smoking tobacco: Health facts

Nicotine present in tobacco found in cigarettes reduces psychiatric, cognitive, sensory, and physical effects of schizophrenia, and also provides relief of common side effects from antipsychotic drugs.

1. Smoking lowers risk of knee-replacement surgery

After controlling for age, weight and exercise, the researchers were able to  explain the slight protective effects of smoking for osteoporosis. It could be that the nicotine in tobacco helps prevent cartilage and joint deterioration.

2. Smoking lowers risk of Parkinson's disease

Numerous studies have identified the uncanny inverse relationship between smoking and Parkinson's disease. Long-term smokers are somehow protected against Parkinson's, and it's not because smokers die of other things earlier.

3. Smoking lowers risk of obesity
Smoking in particular, the nicotine in tobacco smoke is an appetite suppressant. The relationship between smoking and weight control is complex: Nicotine itself acts as both a stimulant and appetite suppressant; and the act of smoking triggers behavior modification that prompts smokers to snack less. Smoking also might make food less tasty for some smokers, further curbing appetite. As an appetite suppressant, nicotine appears to act on a part of the brain called the hypothalamus.

4. Smoking lowers risk of death after some heart attacks

Compared with non- smokers, smokers who have had heart attacks seem to have lower mortality rates and more favorable responses to two kinds of therapy to remove plaque from their arteries: fibrinolytic therapy, which is basically medication; and angioplasty, which removes the plaque by inserting balloons or stents into the arteries.

5. Smoking helps the heart drug clopidogrel work better

Clopidogrel is a drug used to inhibit blood clots for those patients suffering from coronary artery disease and other circulatory diseases leading to strokes and heart attacks. Smoking seems to help clopidogrel do its job better.

Friday, 22 April 2016

Woodwords gripe water ... DEADLY POISONOUS COCKTAIL for your child ..

while the company may ridicule by saying its a 150 year old proven safe formula ..but if we peep in carefully in to the history .. gripe water itself is a SCAM and rejected by its originating country USA because it used ALCOHOL which was banned for child consumption ..
so now 10-15 years back the alcohol in woodwards gripe water is replaced by more DEADLY CHEMICAL PRESERVATIVES lets analyze them .

1) BRONOPOL .. it is the most deadly bromine containing chemical used in woodwords gripe water ..
BRONOPOL is never used in edible food anywhere in the world ..
only used in cosmetics and external medication.. it is disinfectant and antimicrobial
for example  dettol and povidine iodine are NEVER used in food because of their known toxicity if taken internally  ..similary bronopol  cannot be consumed or added to food ..
but thanks to the GOVERNMENT OF INDIA  it has given permission to add bronopol to child medicine !!

Are indian children used as GUINEA PIGS to see the effect of bronopol in food ??

Bronopol acts by releasing FORMALDEHYDE which is a notorious CARCINOGEN !!(cancer causing substance)

Bromine present in bronopol acts as  ANTIANDROGEN destroys the testosterone stem cells of male children making them sterile gay transgender after they grow up ..

2) methyl paraben , ethyl propyl parabens..
these chemicals are known for carcinogenesis and human endocrine disruptors and also proven to decrease the male sperm count and motility!!

3) sodium benzoate  .. same toxic effects as parabens..

i can see evil intention in adding triple doses of benzoic gripe water
( 1 methyl parabenzoic acid 2) propyl parabenzoic acid 3 sodium benzoate  ) paraben is a short form for parabenzoic acid!!
and they never mention the exact amount of chemical preservatives added
all the chemicals have common poisonous effect.. decreasing male fertility in children  and cancer
the world elite super rich people have a hidden agenda decrease the world population.. various nefarious methods are used to achieve their goals ..
they poison the most commonly used food substance ..for example drinking water is poisoned by chlorine in india and other third world countries. .and fluoride is added to drinking water in america and European countries .. bromine is added to mineral water kinley aquafina etc
natural sea salt is poisoned with iodine ..! and now after seeing the ingrediants of gripe water it is clear that even the children are not spared.

Monday, 21 March 2016

Acrylamide : a junk food ingredient

Fact sheet: Acrylamide Toxicity

Human exposure to acrylamide primarily comes from dermal contact with inhalation of dust and vapor in the industrial environment. The public may be exposed to acrylamide through the ingestion of drinking water that is contaminated with acrylamide or the intake of acrylamide from food.

Major health effects of acrylamide are skin irritation such as redness and peeling of the skin of palms and neuropathy regarding the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. Acute and subacute intoxication with a large dose by ingestion water drink contaminated with acrylamide can cause severe symptoms of the central nervous system. Long term exposure to acrylamide produces a motor and sensory polyneuropathy.  Although severe exposure may result in permanent sequelae, affected humans recovered within several months to one year after cessation of exposure.

# CNS (central nervous system) symptoms : drowsiness, disturbance of balance, and mental changes characterized by confusion, hallucinations, memory loss Peripheral polyneuropathy : numbness of lower limbs, tingling of the fingers, tenderness to the touch, decreased pinprick sensation, vibratory loss, weak or absent tendon reflexes such as knee jerk, positive Romberg’s sign, ataxic gait, foot drop and muscular atrophy of the extremities

1. Acute toxicity : Acrylamide is a skin and respiratory tract irritant in humans. Reported oral LD50 values are in the range of 159 mg/kg to 300 mg/kg body weight (bw) in rats (14).

2. Subchronic/Chronic Toxicity : Acrylamide is a human neurotoxicant. Adverse effects in rats administered small amounts of acrylamide include general systemic toxicity and hematological changes. Acrylamide is also a neurotoxicant to animals.

In rats, repeated oral administration of acrylamide at doses of 20 mg/kg bw/day and above produced peripheral neuropathy, atrophy of skeletal muscle, and decreased erythrocyte parameters. At 5 mg/kg bw/day in a 90-day study in rats, peripheral lesions occurred and slight changes in peripheral nerve tissue could see only by electron microscopy at 1 mg/kg bw/day. No effects were seen at 0.2 mg/kg bw/day (16).
In monkeys, clinical signs of peripheral neuropathy occurred at doses of 10 mg/kg bw/day for up to 12 weeks(16).

# Carcinogenicity : Although inadequate evidence is available from human studies, several laboratory animal studies have shown that acrylamide causes a variety of tumors in rats and mice. Acrylamide has been classified by the U.S. EPA as a B2, a probable human carcinogen, by IARC as a 2B, a possible human carcinogen, and by ACGIH as an A3, confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to human.

Although two cohort mortality studies of occupational exposure to acrylamide have been conducted, they were inadequate to evaluate the potential carcinogenicity of humans (14).Two long-term studies in male and female rats were given the range of 0 to 3.0 mg/kg bw/day acrylamide in drinking water for 2 years. At the two highest doses, they observed the incidence of tumors increased in the scrotum, adrenal, thyroid, mammary, oral cavity, and uterus. Tumors of the brain and spinal cord were also seen in studies, but they did not show clear dose responses and did not attain statistical significance. Male and female mice given 6.25, 12.5, or 25 mg/kg bw/day, 3 times/week, for 8 weeks by gavage had a dose-responsive increase in lung adenoma.

# Genotoxicity : Acrylamide causes chromosomal aberrations, dominant lethality, sister chromatid exchanges and unscheduled DNA synthesis in various in vitro and in vivo systems. When administered at a level of 500 ppm in the diet for 3 weeks in mice, acrylamide caused a high frequency of sister chromatid exchanges and breaks.

# Developmental/Reproductive Toxicity : No information was found on the developmental/reproductive effects of acrylamide in humans. Acrylamide does not appear to cause structural developmental defects by oral administration to rats. Testicular atrophy and decreased fertility have been reported in male mice given acrylamide by mouth.

Impaired fertility associated with effects on sperm count and sperm mobility parameters has been demonstrated in male rats exposed to 15 mg/kg bw/day or more for 5 days. But in other rat studies effects on fertility were less clear. No effects on fertility in rats were observed in a 2-generation reproduction study in which males and females of each generation received 5 mg/kg bw/day for 10 to 11 weeks. Male mice treated with 0.035 g/kg by gavage 2 times/week, for 8 weeks had testicular atrophy, reduced numbers of spermatozoa, degenerating spermatids and spermatocytes, and multinucleate giant cells.

# Neurotoxicity : Acrylamide is a neurotoxin by either oral (in animals) or inhalation exposure (in humans and in animals). Toxic effects are central and peripheral neuropathy causing drowsiness, hallucinations, distal numbness, and ataxia. Recovery is possible after cessation of exposure. EPA has derived an oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.0002 mg/kg/day for acrylamide, based on adverse nervous system effects in laboratory animals.

A study of factory workers exposed to 0.07 to 2.5 times the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL 0.03 mg/m3, is roughly equivalent to 0.004 mg/kg bw/day for an 8-hour work day) showed a dose response relationship for abnormal sensation, decreased motor strength, abnormal gait, and skin abnormalities.

Friday, 6 June 2014

Understanding mechanisms of cellular degrading agents



Autophagy is a cellular degradation process that involves the delivery of cytoplasmic cargo to the lysosome. Autophagy occurs at low basal levels in all cells to maintain homeostatic functions such as protein and organelle turnover. It is rapidly upregulated when cells need to generate intracellular nutrients and energy during starvation, growth factor withdrawal, or high bioenergetic demands. Autophagy is also important process to dispose of damaging cytoplasmic components during oxidative stress, infection or protein aggregate accumulation. Consequently, impairment in autophagy can lead to development of certain pathological conditions.

It is well established today that organization of misfolded proteins in aberrant structures such as oligomers initiates profound cellular dysfunction and eventually can result in development of neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases exemplify the contribution of aggregate-prone proteins to disease pathophysiology3.
Eukaryotic cells coordinate protein-folding reactions both in the cytosol and in the ER. Differentialprotein synthesis rates and protein folding accuracy are part of separate signal transductionpathways triggered by the ‘unfolded protein response’ (UPR) in the ER. A subset of soluble molecular chaperones modulates protein folding in the cytosol. Misfolded proteins can be retained associated with molecular chaperones within the ER lumen or translocated to the cytosol for ER-associated degradation (ERAD) through the 26S proteasome or through autophagy. Autophagy is activated in response to this blockage of the proteasome by the pathogenic proteins. However, overloading of the autophagic system can occur and lead to cell death. Autophagic degradation is utilized to reduce ER stress resulting from protein misfolding cluttering.
The discovered activation of autophagy in response to ER stress and cytosolic accumulation of protein aggregates in brain raises implications for understanding and tackling neurodegenerative protein misfolding diseases4. Effects of autophagy on aggregate-prone proteins in other tissues may result in other medical conditions such as myopathy.
Moreover, autophagy plays a role in cancer development: it acts as a tumor suppressor by removing damaged organelles and reducing genome instability, while in other conditions this process helps cancer cells to survive under low nutrient conditions or in cancer treatment.
Innate and adaptive immunity are also dependent on autophagy process. Bacteria, viruses and protozoans are generally removed from host cells by autophagy mechanism. Autophagy also may help to prevent inflammation and autoimmune diseases.
Overall, autophagy is essential cellular process important in proper cell function and organism survival.