Tuesday, 2 July 2013

FROM CURE TO ABUSE : DRUGS THAT AFFECTED HUMAN MOST ADVERSELY

In my previous post  i presented the top ten discoveries and now i am with the chemicals that affected most adversely to human race they were discovered to cure but they presented themselves as curse .some of these chemicals are banned for use and some of these are still used as drugs lets go through the list :

Devils breath  (scopolamine)
have u ever thought of drug which could wipe out your memory well if the answer is no then presenting you the devils breath . 

The Devil’s Breath,' is derived from a particular type of tree common in Colombia called the Borrachero tree this tree which naturally produces scopolamine is so famous in the countryside that mothers warn their children not to fall asleep below its cunningly beautiful yellow and white flowers. the drug is used by just blowing it on the victims face by the colombian criminals and person is wiped out of his memory wait if you are in thought that how is this possible then just reminding you the drugs can be delivered transdermally or in simple through your skins and scopolamine is a potent transdermal agent  .In ancient times, the drug was given to the mistresses of dead Colombian leaders they were told to enter their master’s grave, where they were buried alive.
And if we talk about the medicinal use it is used for the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting and sea sickness, leading to its use by scuba divers ,Treatment of intestinal cramping, As a general depressant and adjunct to narcotic painkillers Scopolamine was also one of the active ingredients in Asthmador, an over-the-counter (OTC) smoking preparation marketed in the 1950s and '60s claiming to combat asthma and bronchitis. In November 1990, the US Food and Drug Administration forced OTC products with scopolamine and several hundred other ingredients that had allegedly not been proved effective off the market.


L.S.D (Lysergic acid diethylamide)
LSD was first synthesized by a swiss chemist named Albert Hofmann he was employed in a laboratory at Sandoz, a pharmaceutical company Sandoz was working on a research project involving a parasitic fungus called ergot that grows on rye, known as Claviceps purpurea


.Ergot had been used by midwives, who sometimes gave it to pregnant women to bring about and speed up labor. In the 19th century, most physicians deemed the practice too dangerous because high doses lead to strong contractions and endanger the baby, although physicians sometimes still used ergot to stop a woman's bleeding after childbirth .Hofmann developed several medicines,  In 1938, Hofmann derived the 25th in a series of these derivatives. It was lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD-25. He thought that LSD-25 might stimulate breathing and circulation. But tests didn't show anything special, and Sandoz abandoned further study.Five years later, Hofmann's thoughts returned to LSD-25's he took the unusual step of synthesizing another batch for further testing. During the process, however, Hofmann began to feel strange. He stopped his work and went home early, "being affected by a remarkable restlessness, combined with a slight dizziness." While at home, he was in a "dreamlike state" and "perceived an uninterrupted steam of fantastic pictures, .as a physician he now knows that it was due to LSD 25 .The next day, Hofmann purposely dosed himself with LSD.
He took 250 micrograms, 10 times more than today's typical minimum dose. Hofmann became delirious and could barely speak. Initially he panicked and asked his laboratory assistant to call a doctor. The doctor could find nothing wrong with Hofmann other than the fact that his pupils were dilated  Soon his panic gave way to euphoria, and Hofmann once again saw beautiful shapes and colors. The next day, he told others at Sandoz about what had happened, and they experimented with similar results. No other drug had been known to have such strong effects in such small doses.The research was compelling enough to convince Sandoz to patent LSD and market it as Delysid in 1947 Between 1950 and 1965, approximately 40,000 patients were given Sandoz's Delysid tablets  These included schizophrenics, obsessive-compulsives, depressives and autistic people. It was also administered to people considered mentally ill with sexual perversions, such as homosexuality They gave their patients high doses of about 200 micrograms over just a few sessions and what happened next is not the fact that is unknown.


HEROIN (diacetylmorphine or morphine diacetate )
 An opioid analgesic synthesized by C.R. Alder Wright in 1874 by adding two acetyl groups to the molecule morphine, found in the opium poppy it is typically used to treat severe pain, such as that resulting from a heart attack or a severe injury  the freebase form of heroin is also smokable.

It is prevalent in heroin coming from Afghanistan, which as of 2004 produced roughly 87% of the world supply in illicit raw opium.However, production in Mexico has risen six times from 2007 to 2011, changing that percentage and placing Mexico as the second largest opium producer in the world. Heroin was first manufactured in 1898 by the Bayer pharmaceutical company of Germany and marketed as a treatment for tuberculosis as well as a remedy for morphine addiction during the 1850s, opium addiction was a major problem in the United States. The “solution” was to provide opium addicts with a less potent and supposedly non-addictive substitute morphine. Morphine addiction soon became a bigger problem than opium addiction.As with opium, the morphine problem was solved by another non-addictive substitute heroin, which proved to be even more addictive than morphine.By the late 1990s, the mortality rate of heroin addicts was estimated to be as high as twenty times greater than the rest of the population.Till now heroin is taken illegely by the addicts.
TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL
 as a pharma graduate putting both of these things together may be stupid but i have to becoz both of the above drugs affected quite similar no of people so first of all

TOBACCO Tobacco is a product processed from the dried leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be used as a pesticide, and extracts form ingredients of some medicines and is commonly consumed as a drug. Tobacco is a name for any plant of the genus Nicotiana of the Solanaceae family (nightshade family) and for the product manufactured from the leaf used in cigars and cigarettes, snuff, pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco and flavored shisha. since its introduction tobacco has taken a numerous lives its various forms are banned in different countries and its most used product is cigarette 

ALCOHOL In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (-O H) is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms. alcohols are of very effective medicinal agents they are used as antiseptics and also in various other purpose but there is one more fact that they are addictive and affected a wide no of humans usaully alcohol addiction is not even confirmed when started.

COCAINE
Cocaine (benzoylmethylecgonine, an ecgonine derivative) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant.

The name comes from "coca" and the alkaloid suffix -ine, forming cocaine. It is a stimulant, an appetite suppressant, and a topical anesthetic. For over a thousand years South American indigenous peoples have chewed the leaves of Erythroxylon coca, a plant that contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids, including cocaine. The coca leaf was, and still is, chewed almost universally by some indigenous communities. The remains of coca leaves have been found with ancient Peruvian mummies, and pottery from the time period depicts humans with bulged cheeks, indicating the presence of something on which they are chewing .The cocaine alkaloid was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke in 1855. Gaedcke named the alkaloid "erythroxyline", and published a description in the journal Archiv der Pharmazie. Some countries, such as Peru and Bolivia permit the cultivation of coca leaf for traditional consumption by the local indigenous population, but nevertheless prohibit the production, sale and consumption of cocaine.
In addition, some parts of Europe and Australia allow processed cocaine for medicinal uses only.Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, who used the drug himself, was the first to broadly promote cocaine as a tonic to cure depression and sexual impotence.In 1886, the popularity of the drug got a further boost when John Pemberton included coca leaves as an ingredient in his new soft drink, Coca-Cola. The euphoric and energizing effects on the consumer helped to skyrocket the popularity of Coca-Cola by the turn of the century.Notable figures who promoted the “miraculous” effects of cocaine tonics and elixirs included inventor Thomas Edison and actress Sarah Bernhardt. The drug became popular in the silent film industry and the pro-cocaine messages coming out of Hollywood at that time influenced millions.By 1905, it had become popular to snort cocaine and within five years, hospitals and medical literature had started reporting cases of nasal damage resulting from the use of this drug.In 1912, the United States government reported 5,000 cocaine-related deaths in one year and by 1922, the drug was officially banned.


STREET METHADONE
Street methadone is methadone sold or given to someone it was not prescribed for .Methadone is a powerful medication that is part of a group of drugs called opioids.


Codeine, morphine, Percocet, OxyContin and heroin are all opioids. Methadone is prescribed by a doctor to treat people who have been addicted to opioids. When taken as prescribed, methadone is safe. It does not get a person high, but it does stop opioid withdrawal for a full day. A person who does not have to worry about withdrawal can find time to do things like go to school or work. Methadone was first synthesized in 1937 by German scientists Max Bockmühl and Gustav Ehrhart at the IG Farben company. They were searching for a painkiller that would be easier to use during surgery, with less addiction potential than morphine or heroin.Yet methadone is believed by many to be even more addictive than heroin.Abuse of methadone can lead to psychological dependence When an individual uses methadone, he/she may experience physical symptoms like sweating, itchy skin, or sleepiness. Individuals who abuse methadone risk becoming tolerant of and physically dependent on the drug.
When use is stopped, individuals may experience withdrawal symptoms including: anxiety, muscle tremors, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps.Drugs like heroin, crack and even nicotine work quickly, but the effects don’t last long. However, methadone works very slowly it takes hours to get the full effect. Because methadone works so slowly, the effect can last up to 24 hours. There is no “rush” when you take methadone, but its other effects are similar to those of heroin and OxyContin: too much can make you go to sleep and stop breathing.Some people who are prescribed methadone are allowed to take their medication home. These doses are called “carries.” Street methadone may come from people who sell or give away their carries.


KETAMINE (date-rape drug)
Let me ask u have you ever heard about dissociative anesthetic these can be defined as the drug that distorts perception of sight and sound and produces feelings of detachment (dissociation) from the environment and self. 

Ketamine, categorized as a dissociative anesthetic is used in powdered or liquid form as an anesthetic, usually on animals. It can be injected, consumed in drinks, snorted, or added to joints or cigarettes. Ketamine was placed on the list of controlled substances in the US in 1999. Short- and long-term effects include increased heart rate and blood pressure, nausea, vomiting, numbness, depression, amnesia, hallucinations and potentially fatal respiratory problems. Ketamine users can also develop cravings for the drug. At high doses, users experience an effect referred to as “K-Hole,” an “out of body” or “near-death” experience. Due to the detached, dreamlike state it creates, where the user finds it difficult to move, ketamine has been used as a “date-rape” drug. Ketamine was developed in 1963, and is used in both veterinary and human medicine. It is created by pharmaceutical companies in laboratories.
The illicit sales of ketamine mostly come from diverting the drug from pharmacies. It is still used today in both areas of medicine, where it acts an anaesthetic, painkiller and sedative.When people stop taking ketamine, they may experience a high degree of depression or anxiety, as well as a craving for the drug. This is a result of ketamine’s effects on the neurotransmitters in the brain.it is used as party drug illegaly all over the world .Ketamine has been shown to be effective in treating depression in patients with bipolar disorder who have not responded to antidepressants. In persons with major depressive disorder, it produces a rapid antidepressant effect, acting within two hours as opposed to the several weeks taken by typical antidepressants to work

CRYSTAL METH 
Crystal meth is short for crystal methamphetamine. It is just one form of the drug methamphetamine. Methamphetamine is a white crystalline drug that people take by snorting it (inhaling through the nose), smoking it or injecting it with a needle.
Some even take it orally, but all develop a strong desire to continue using it because the drug creates a false sense of happiness and well-being a rush (strong feeling) of confidence, hyperactiveness and energy. One also experiences decreased appetite. These drug effects generally last from six to eight hours, but can last up to twenty-four hours.Crystal meth is used by individuals of all ages, but is most commonly used as a “club drug,” taken while partying in night clubs or at rave parties. Its most common street names are ice or glass. Amphetamine was first made in 1887 in Germany and methamphetamine, more potent and easy to make, was developed in Japan in 1919.

The crystalline powder was soluble in water, making it a perfect candidate for injection. Methamphetamine went into wide use during World War II, when both sides used it to keep troops awake. High doses were given to Japanese Kamikaze pilots before their suicide missions.In the 1950s, methamphetamine was prescribed as a diet aid and to fight depression. Easily available, it was used as a nonmedical stimulant by college students, truck drivers and athletes and abuse of the drug spread.

BENZODIAZIPINE
Sometimes called “downers,” these drugs come in multicolored tablets and capsules or in liquid form. Some drugs in this category, such as Zyprexa, Seroquel and Haldol, are known as “major tranquilizers” or “antipsychotics,” as they are supposed to reduce the symptoms of mental illness. Depressants such as Xanax, Klonopin, Halcion and Librium are often referred to as “benzos” (short for benzodiazepines). Other depressants, such as Amytal, Nembutal and Seconal, are classed as barbiturates drugs that are used as sedatives and sleeping pills. Higher doses can cause impairment of memory, judgment and coordination, irritability, paranoia, and suicidal thoughts. Some people experience the opposite of the intended effect, such as agitation or aggression.Tolerance to many depressants can develop rapidly, with larger doses needed to achieve the same effect. The user, trying to reach the same high, may raise the dose to a level that results in coma or death by overdose.

Withdrawal symptoms include insomnia, weakness and nausea. For continual and high-dose users, agitation, high body temperature, delirium, hallucinations and convulsions can occur. Unlike withdrawal from most drugs, withdrawal from depressants can be life-threatening.These drugs can also increase the risk of high blood sugar, diabetes, and weight gain (instances of up to 100 pounds have been reported.In a study conducted by USA Today, based on Food and Drug Administration data over a four-year period, antipsychotics (a type of depressant) were the prime suspects in forty-five deaths caused by heart problems, choking, liver failure and suicide.




DESIGNER DRUGS (BATH SALTS)
Bath salts the informal "street name" for a family of designer drugs often containing substituted cathinones, which have effects similar to amphetamine and cocaine.
Their white crystals often resemble legal bathing products like epsom salts, but are chemically disparate from actual bath salts. Bath salts' packaging often states "not for human consumption" in an attempt to avoid the prohibition of drugs. Other "street names" for this drug are Ivory Wave, Purple Wave, Vanilla Sky, and Bliss.Synthetic cathinones such as mephedrone which are chemically similar to cathinone, naturally found in the plant Catha edulis (khat), were first synthesised in the 1910s They remained obscure until the first decade of the 21st century, when they were rediscovered by underground chemists and began to be used in designer drugs, as the compounds were legal in many jurisdictions. In 2009 and 2010 there was a significant rise in the abuse of synthetic cathinones, initially in the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe, and subsequently in the US and Canada. Drugs marketed as "bath salts" first came to the attention of authorities in the US in 2010 after reports were made to US poison centres. In Europe, the drugs were predominantly purchased from drug dealers or from websites, but in the US they were mainly sold in small independent stores such as gas stations and head shops. Bath salts are sold in 50-milligram packets online and have their own brand names. Some of the brand names online are called "Purple Wave," "Zoom," and "Cloud Nine." In the US, this often made them easier to obtain than cigarettes and alcohol.Hundreds of other designer drugs or "legal highs" have been reported, including artificial chemicals such as synthetic cannabis and semi-synthetic substances such as methylhexaneamine.
These drugs are primarily developed to avoid being controlled by laws against illegal drugs, thus giving them the label of designer drugs .Pharmacologically, bath salts usually contain a cathinone, typically methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone or mephedrone; however, the chemical composition varies widely and products labeled with the same name may also contain derivatives of pyrovalerone or pipradrol. In Europe the main synthetic cathinone is mephedrone, whereas in the US MDPV is more common. Very little is known about how bath salts interact with the brain and how they are metabolised by the body. Scientists are inclined to believe that bath salts have a powerful addictive potential and can increase users' tolerance. They are similar to amphetamines in that they cause stimulant effects by increasing the concentration of monoamines such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine in synapses. They are generally less able to cross the blood brain barrier than amphetamines due to the presence of a beta-keto group which increases the compound's polarity .Little is known about how many people use bath salts. In the UK, mephedrone is the fourth most commonly used drug among nightclub goers after cannabis, MDMA and cocaine. Based on reports to the American Association of Poison Control Centers, use of bath salts in the US is thought to have increased significantly between 2010 and 2011. The increase in use is thought to be a result of their widespread availability and sensationalist media coverage.Its the newest drugs used by the people.It is sold online through dozens of dedicated websites as a "plant food" to get round the Medicines Act, although it has no known use as a fertilizer

so these can be listed as the drugs which affected human race most adversely ofcourse there are other names too but its my opinion plz give yous in the comment box.